Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)
What is DDH?
Developmental Hip Dysplasia is the term used to describe the varying degree of abnormal function of the hip joint. This can occur in utero and also can develop during infancy and childhood. The hip joint is abnormal because the ball is not held firmly into the socket.
Who is affected?
One in 1000 live births are affected. It runs in families. It can be in one or both hips. The left hip is mostly affected. High risk factors include being female, first born or breech position at birth.
When is the baby screened for DDH?
Babies are screened at birth and at well baby check ups by the Pediatrician. If the Pediatrician has concerns, they should refer the baby and parents to an orthopedic surgeon.
What if DDH is left untreated?
If DDH is left untreated, it can lead to pain and osteoarthritis in early adulthood.
What are the Risk Factors for Developmental Hip Dysplasia?
- first born
- family history of developmental hip dysplasia
- position of baby in uterus, especially breech position
- having other orthopedic problems
What are the symptoms?
- the leg may appear shorter on the side of the dislocated hip
- the leg on the side of the dislocated hip may turn outward
- the folds in the skin of the thigh or buttocks may appear uneven
- the space between the legs may look wider than normal
Congenital/Development Hip Dysplasia: Abnormal hip development (involving the acetabulum, prox femur & adjacent soft tissues)
Subluxation: partial loss of contact between articular surfaces of femoral head & acetabulum
Dislocation: complete loss of contact between articular surfaces
Instability: subluxable or dislocatable with passive manipulation (newborn); instability also occurs very subtly (later in life) 2° to residual dysplasia
Primiparous uterus tighter & can effect greater molding malformation; 1st born account for 50-60 % of patients with DDH
How is DDH monitored?
Physical exam by an Orthopedic Surgeon
What is the orthopedic surgeon looking for?
- Limited abduction - not seen until about 3-4 months
- Galeazzi sign
- Trendelenburg sign - opposite side of pelvis dips during one legged stance
What type of imaging is used?
- Ultrasound - most useful image study to confirm anatomy & stability up to 4 months of age
- X-ray - not accurate until patient is gestationally four months of age
- Arthrogram - dynamic study to assess quality of closed reduction
- CT- used to assess a Closed Reduction; also define anatomy in older patients
- MRI - maybe used to reduce radiation to patient.
Treatment Groups (done by age): Birth to 6 months
- Ensure proper alignment of harness
- Harness maybe hand washed and either air dried or with a hairdryer
- Releasing harness to decrease risk of AVN(Avascular Necrosis of the femoral head) at least once a day to allow patient to “kick”
- Proper fit is:
- Comfortable infant
- Chest strap below nipple line
- Anterior straps hold hips in position
- Posterior strap loose!
- Hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees
Il felt brace
Used for children after the Pavlik harness. This is used when the child becomes to big or the Pavlik can no longer assist in the hips going to the right position.
Closed Reduction of the Hip
Patient is taken to the operating room for a closed reduction of the hip. The patient is put to sleep with the help of the anesthesia team. The patient does have x-rays in the room.
Patient is placed into a SPICA cast. They are in this case for approximately 4 to 6 weeks initially. The cast is changed at increments in the operating room. The total cast time varies for each patient. The total cast time can last up to 3 months.
The patient is then transitioned into a brace. The brace wear time is determined for each child.
Occasionally an arthrogram is performed. This is when dye is injected into the hip to view the location of the closed reduction. This is often done in conjunction of a CT or MRI.
Car Seat Options with the Cast
We always try your car seat from home. Sometimes we have luck! IF not we have a few loaner car seats available. This below is the Britax Hippo Car Seat.
6 to 18 Months
- x-ray of Pelvis
- Clinical exam per Orthopedic Surgeon
- Listening to Family
- Closed reduction
- Open Reduction
- SPICA cast
18 to 30 Months
- AP x-ray of Pelvis
- Clinical Exam per orthopedic Surgeon
- Operative management is usually required
- Open reduction
- Pemberton osteotomy
- x-ray of pelvis
- clinical exam per orthopedic surgeon
- Operative Management